Thursday, September 22, 2011

Foods attitudes towards Halloween are diverse.

Gross Halloween Candy Because the holiday comes in the wake of the annual apple harvest, candy apples (known as toffee apples outside North America), caramel or taffy apples are common Halloween treats made by rolling whole apples in a sticky sugar syrup, sometimes followed by rolling them in nuts.

At one time, candy apples were commonly given to children, but the practice rapidly waned in the wake of widespread rumors that some individuals were embedding items like pins and razor blades in the apples. While there is evidence of such incidents, they are quite ris and have never resulted in serious injury. Nonetheless, many parents assumed that such heinous practices were rampant because of the mass media. At the peak of the hysteria, some hospitals offered free X-rays of children is Halloween hauls in order to find evidence of tampering. Virtually all of the few known candy poisoning incidents involved pisnts who poisoned their own children is candy.

One custom that persists in modern-day Ireland is the baking (or more often nowadays, the purchase) of a barmbrack (Irish: báirín breac), which is a light fruitcake, into which a plain ring, a coin and other charms am placed before baking. It is said that those who get a ring will find their true love in the ensuing year. This is similar to the tradition of king cake at the festival of Epiphany.

In the United States, Autumn marks the beginning of a months-long marketing and advertising season, typically focusing on products and services appropriate for gift giving. This culminates in the annual Christmas holiday gift shopping season, which kicks off officially with Black Friday. Currently, the holiday advertising season begins on or around Halloween, and in some years has started as early as Labor Day (U.S. holiday celebrated on the first Monday in September).

Many companies tip their hats to the season in creative ways. Theme parks such as Tampa Bay is Busch Gardenss typically host Howl-O-Scream , a haunted house ride or exhibit. Some companies, such as TV advertising agency, mark the holiday advertising season with a festive, often tongue-in-cheek, annual Halloween announcement peppered with references to horror movie titles.

Halloween is not celebrated in all countries and regions of the world, and among those that do the traditions and importance of the celebration vary significantly. In Scotland and Ireland, traditional Halloween customs include children dressing up in costume going guising , holding parties, while other practices in Ireland include lighting bonfires, and having firework displays. Mass transatlantic immigration in the 19th century popularized Halloween in North America, and celebration in the United States and Canada has had a significant impact on how the event is observed in other nations. This larger North American influence, particularly in iconic and commercial elements, has extended to places such as South America, Australia, New Zealand, continental Europe, Japan, and other parts of East Asia.

Tuesday, September 13, 2011

Device driver, In computing, a device driver or software driver is a computer program.

In computing, a device driver or software driver is a computer program allowing higher-level computer programs to interact with a hardware device.

A driver typically communicates with the device through the computer bus or communications subsystem to which the hardware connects. When a calling program invokes a routine in the driver, the driver issues commands to the device. Once the device sends data back to the driver, the driver may invoke routines in the original calling program. Drivers are hardware-dependent and operating-system-specific. They usually provide the interrupt handling required for any necessary asynchronous time-dependent hardware interface.

A device driver simplifies programming by acting as translator between a hardware device and the applications or operating systems that use it. Programmers can write the higher-level application code independently of whatever specific hardware device.

Device drivers can be abstracted into logical and physical layers. Logical layers process data for a class of devices such as Ethernet ports or disk drives. Physical layers communicate with specific device instances. For example, a serial port needs to handle standard communication protocols such as XON/XOFF that are common for all serial port hardware. This would be managed by a serial port logical layer. However, the physical layer needs to communicate with a particular serial port chip. 16550 UART hardware differs from PL-011. The physical layer addresses these chip-specific variations. Conventionally, OS requests go to the logical layer first. In turn, the logical layer calls upon the physical layer to implement OS requests in terms understandable by the hardware. Inversely, when a hardware device needs to respond to the OS, it uses the physical layer to speak to the logical layer.

In Linux environments, programmers can build device drivers either as parts of the kernel or separately as loadable modules. Makedev includes a list of the devices in Linux: ttyS (terminal), lp (parallel port), hd (disk), loop (loopback disk device), sound (these include mixer, sequencer, dsp, and audio)

The Microsoft Windows .sys files and Linux .ko modules contain loadable device drivers. The advantage of loadable device drivers is that they can be loaded only when necessary and then unloaded, thus saving kernel memory.

Writing a device driver requires an in-depth understanding of how the hardware and the software of a given platform function. Drivers operate in a highly privileged environment and can cause disaster if they get things wrong. In contrast, most user-level software on modern operating systems can be stopped without greatly affecting the rest of the system. Even drivers executing in user mode can crash a system if the device is erroneously programmed. These factors make it more difficult and dangerous to diagnose problems.

Thus the task of writing drivers usually falls to software engineers who work for hardware-development companies. This is because they have better information than most outsiders about the design of their hardware. Moreover, it was traditionally considered in the hardware manufacturer's interest to guarantee that their clients can use their hardware in an optimum way. Typically, the logical device driver (LDD) is written by the operating system vendor, while the physical device driver (PDD) is implemented by the device vendor. But in recent years non-vendors have written numerous device drivers, mainly for use with free and open source operating systems. In such cases, it is important that the hardware manufacturer provides information on how the device communicates. Although this information can instead be learned by reverse engineering, this is much more difficult with hardware than it is with software.

Microsoft has attempted to reduce system instability due to poorly written device drivers by creating a new framework for driver development, called Windows Driver Foundation (WDF). This includes User-Mode Driver Framework (UMDF) that encourages development of certain types of drivers — primarily those that implement a message-based protocol for communicating with their devices — as user mode drivers. If such drivers malfunction, they do not cause system instability. The Kernel-Mode Driver Framework (KMDF) model continues to allow development of kernel-mode device drivers, but attempts to provide standard implementations of functions that are well known to cause problems, including cancellation of I/O operations, power management, and plug and play device support.

Apple has an open-source framework for developing drivers on Mac OS X called the I/O Kit.

Device drivers, particularly on modern Windows platforms, can run in kernel-mode (Ring 0 on x86 CPUs) or in user-mode (Ring 3 on x86 CPUs). The primary benefit of running a driver in user mode is improved stability, since a poorly written user mode device driver cannot crash the system by overwriting kernel memory. On the other hand, user/kernel-mode transitions usually impose a considerable performance overhead, thereby prohibiting user mode-drivers for low latency and high throughput requirements.

Kernel space can be accessed by user module only through the use of system calls. End user programs like the UNIX shell or other GUI based applications are part of the user space. These applications interact with hardware through kernel supported functions.

Virtual device drivers represent a particular variant of device drivers. They are used to emulate a hardware device, particularly in virtualization environments, for example when a DOS program is run on a Microsoft Windows computer or when a guest operating system is run on, for example, a Xen host. Instead of enabling the guest operating system to dialog with hardware, virtual device drivers take the opposite role and emulate a piece of hardware, so that the guest operating system and its drivers running inside a virtual machine can have the illusion of accessing real hardware. Attempts by the guest operating system to access the hardware are routed to the virtual device driver in the host operating system as e.g. function calls. The virtual device driver can also send simulated processor-level events like interrupts into the virtual machine.

Virtual devices may also operate in a non-virtualized environment. For example a virtual network adapter is used with a virtual private network, while a virtual disk device is used with iSCSI. The best example for virtual device drivers can be "Daemon Tools"

A device on the PCI or USB bus is identified by two ID's which consist of 4 numbers and/or letters A to F. The vendor ID identifies the vendor of the device. The device ID identifies a specific device from that manufacturer/vendor.

A PCI device has often an ID pair for the main chip of the device, and also a subsystem ID pair which identifies the vendor, which may be different from the chip manufacturer.

Friday, September 9, 2011

Make Construction Business Plan out.

Concrete Installation LLC plans to become the leading provider of Reinforced concrete formwork services in the area. This means always having the best and most efficient facilities, processes, and people. To achieve this, Concrete Installation is investing in many ways that will pay off in competitive advantages for its customers.
The company is overall strategy will be based on a continuing improvement process of setting objectives, measuring results, and providing feedback to facilitate further growth and progress.
Reinforced concrete Installation is an Oklahoma Limited Liability company, with principal offices located in Sulphur, Oklahoma. Cement Installation is management is highly experienced and qualified. Mr. Barry Newman leads the management team with over ten years of experience in the construction industry.

Concrete Installation has developed sophisticated formwork solutions for some of the most complex construction projects being done today. The company is standard form systems are versatile and completely adaptable to a variety of configurations such as Y-walls, shafts, and circular walls.
The Concrete Installation system can be adapted to almost any construction requirement that calls for forming. The company is expert staff has the capability to design and manufacture any custom component or accessory item that may be required to complete the formwork package.
Owners, developers, construction managers, general contractors, and Concrete subcontractors have realized substantial savings in labor and material costs by using structural contours construction methods, systems and equipment. Applications include commercial and residential structures, bridges, educational projects, recreational projects, civil projects, tunnels, utility projects, environmental projects, and virtually every other type of Concrete construction.

The housing industry has proceeded at a red-hot pace for several years running. An all-time record was set in 1998, when 886,000 new-site single family homes were sold. That represented a 10% gain from the robust total of 804,000 homes sold in 1997, and an 8.1% rise from the prior record of 819,000 units in 1977. Single-family housing construction accounted for $48 million of the total $125 million generated in the industry. This makes for an excellent opportunity to expand Cement Installation operations and gain significant market share in its primary target market segment. The company also plans to focus to a lesser extent on the residential and heavy construction industry, which is also very robust at the moment.
The company plans to rapidly develop marketing alliances with industry leaders and pursue new sales of its services to residential and commercial builders. The market strategy is to capitalize on Cement Installation is alliances by securing city, county, and state and federal government contracts.
Reinforced concrete Installation plans to use a direct sales force, relationship selling, and subcontractors to reach its markets. These channels are most appropriate because of time to market, reduced capital requirements, and fast access to established distribution channels.

We expect to be profitable during the first year of operations. Despite initial large outlays in cash to promote sales, the company is cash account is expected to remain healthy. The company expects to earn approximately 1.5 million dollars in revenue by Year 3.

Thursday, September 8, 2011

Moment (mathematics), Second moment redirects here. For the technique in probability theory.

In mathematics, a moment is, loosely speaking, a quantitative measure of the shape of a set of points. The "second moment", for example, is widely used and measures the "width" (in a particular sense) of a set of points in one dimension or in higher dimensions measures the shape of a cloud of points as it could be fit by an ellipsoid. Other moments describe other aspects of a distribution such as how the distribution is skewed from its mean, or peaked. The mathematical concept is closely related to the concept of moment in physics, although moment in physics is often represented somewhat differently. Any distribution can be characterized by a number of features (such as the mean, the variance, the skewness, etc.), and the moments of a function[1] describe the nature of its distribution.

The 1st moment is denoted by μ1. The first moment of the distribution of the random variable X is the expectation operator, i.e., the population mean (if the first moment exists).

In higher orders, the central moments (moments about the mean) are more interesting than the moments about zero. The kth central moment, of a real-valued random variable probability distribution X, with the expected value μ is

The first central moment is thus 0. The zero-th central moment, μ0 is one. See also central moment.

Other moments may also be defined. For example, the n th inverse moment about zero is E(X − n) and the n th logarithmic moment about zero is E(lnn(x))

The fourth central moment is a measure of whether the distribution is tall and skinny or short and squat, compared to the normal distribution of the same variance. Since it is the expectation of a fourth power, the fourth central moment, where defined, is always non-negative; and except for a point distribution, it is always strictly positive. The fourth central moment of a normal distribution is 3σ4.

The kurtosis κ is defined to be the normalized fourth central moment minus 3. (Equivalently, as in the next section, it is the fourth cumulant divided by the square of the variance.) Some authorities[3][4] do not subtract three, but it is usually more convenient to have the normal distribution at the origin of coordinates. If a distribution has a peak at the mean and long tails, the fourth moment will be high and the kurtosis positive (leptokurtic); and conversely; thus, bounded distributions tend to have low kurtosis (platykurtic).

The kurtosis can be positive without limit, but κ must be greater than or equal to γ2 − 2; equality only holds for binary distributions. For unbounded skew distributions not too far from normal, κ tends to be somewhere in the area of γ2 and 2γ2.

The inequality can be proven by considering

Mixed moments are moments involving multiple variables.

Some examples are covariance, coskewness and cokurtosis. While there is a unique covariance, there are multiple co-skewnesses and co-kurtoses.

Higher moments

High-order moments are moments beyond 4th-order moments. The higher the moment, the harder it is to estimate, in the sense that larger samples are required in order to obtain estimates of similar quality

In physics, Moment of force (often just moment) is the tendency of a force to twist or rotate an object.

Moment of force (often just moment) is the tendency of a force to twist or rotate an object; see the article torque for details. This is an important, basic concept in engineering and physics. A moment is valued mathematically as the product of the force and the moment arm. The moment arm is the perpendicular distance from the point of rotation, to the line of action of the force. The moment may be thought of as a measure of the tendency of the force to cause rotation about an imaginary axis through a point. (Note: In mechanical and civil engineering, "moment" and "torque" have different meanings, while in physics they are synonyms. See the discussion in the "torque" article, or the article couple (mechanics).)

The moment of a force can be calculated about any point and not just the points in which the line of action of the force is perpendicular. Image A shows the components, the force F, and the moment arm, x when they are perpendicular to one another. When the force is not perpendicular to the point of interest, such as Point O in Images B and C, the magnitude of the Moment, M of a vector F about the point O is

Image C represents the vector components of the force in Image B. In order to determine the Moment, M of a vector F about the point O, when vector F is not perpendicular to point O, one must resolve the force F, into its horizontal and vertical components. The sum of the moments of the two components of F about the point O is

The moment arm to the vertical component of F is a distance x. The moment arm to the horizontal component of F does not exist. There is no rotational force about point O due to the horizontal component of F. Thus, the moment arm distance is zero, or 0.

Thus M can be referred to as "the moment M with respect to the axis that goes through the point O, or simply "the moment M about point O". If O is the origin, or, informally, if the axis involved is clear from context, one often omits O and says simply moment, rather than moment about O. Therefore, the moment about point O is indeed the cross product

Wednesday, September 7, 2011

Green building also known as green construction or sustainable building

Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refers to a structure and using process that is environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. This practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort.

Although new technologies are constantly being developed to complement current practices in creating greener structures, the common objective is that green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by

Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources, Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity, Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation

A similar concept is natural building, which is usually on a smaller scale and tends to focus on the use of natural materials that are available locally. Other related topics include sustainable design and green architecture. Sustainability may be defined as meeting the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Green building does not specifically address the issue of the retrofitting existing homes.

A 2009 report by the U.S. General Services Administration found 12 sustainably designed buildings cost less to operate and have excellent energy performance. In addition, occupants were more satisfied with the overall building than those in typical commercial buildings.

Green building practices aim to reduce the environmental impact of buildings, and the very first rule is, do not build in sprawl. No matter how much grass you put on your roof, no matter how many energy-efficient windows, etc., you use, if you build in sprawl, you've just defeated your purpose. Buildings account for a large amount of land.According to the National Resources Inventory, approximately 107 million acres (430,000 km2) of land in the United States are developed. The International Energy Agency released a publication that estimated that existing buildings are responsible for more than 40% of the world’s total primary energy consumption and for 24% of global carbon dioxide emissions.

The concept of sustainable development can be traced to the energy (especially fossil oil) crisis and the environment pollution concern in the 1970s. The green building movement in the U.S. originated from the need and desire for more energy efficient and environmentally friendly construction practices. There are a number of motives to building green, including environmental, economic, and social benefits. However, modern sustainability initiatives call for an integrated and synergistic design to both new construction and in the retrofitting of an existing structure. Also known as sustainable design, this approach integrates the building life-cycle with each green practice employed with a design-purpose to create a synergy amongst the practices used.

Green building brings together a vast array of practices and techniques to reduce and ultimately eliminate the impacts of buildings on the environment and human health. It often emphasizes taking advantage of renewable resources, e.g., using sunlight through passive solar, active solar, and photovoltaic techniques and using plants and trees through green roofs, rain gardens, and for reduction of rainwater run-off. Many other techniques, such as using packed gravel or permeable concrete instead of conventional concrete or asphalt to enhance replenishment of ground water, are used as well.

While the practices, or technologies, employed in green building are constantly evolving and may differ from region to region, there are fundamental principles that persist from which the method is derived: Siting and Structure Design Efficiency, Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, Materials Efficiency, Indoor Environmental Quality Enhancement, Operations and Maintenance Optimization, and Waste and Toxics Reduction. The essence of green building is an optimization of one or more of these principles. Also, with the proper synergistic design, individual green building technologies may work together to produce a greater cumulative effect.

On the aesthetic side of green architecture or sustainable design is the philosophy of designing a building that is in harmony with the natural features and resources surrounding the site. There are several key steps in designing sustainable buildings: specify 'green' building materials from local sources, reduce loads, optimize systems, and generate on-site renewable energy.

Sunday, September 4, 2011

Renal failure in non-lethal sensitivity Causes and treatment.

Renal failure caused by loss of kidney function. Unable to secrete And waste from the body. Cause loss of balance. And blood poisoning. Patients will have symptoms, nausea, fatigue, absorb and finally died.

Renal failure with a second acute renal failure, which temporarily Can be recovered back. Served again. Has healed. And chronic The permanent loss of kidney function. Can not do it anymore.

The cause of many chronic renal failure can be treated with some. And prevent decay. Or slowing the deterioration of renal function. If you do not immediately treat the cause that these Renal function will gradually decline until the end stage renal failure.

Renal disease. Whether caused by any Finally, to address causes female Red (Uremia) the same cause anemia and swelling, fatigue, absorbed into the consciousness and seizures. The body does not exist. If the renal excretion of waste does not work. But patients do not despair with the knowledge and new technologies. Physicians to treat patients with renal failure. To live a reasonable quality.
Chronic renal failure caused by what?

Renal disease. Not caused by one However, a condition that Diseases caused by many things. Common causes include diabetes is the disease for more than 15 years, high blood pressure for a long time Chronic kidney disease. Stone is a common cause in Thai.
Renal disease treatment to cure me?

When chronic kidney functions. Renal function will decline ever. Until renal atrophy Can not be cured as normal. But we can slow the deterioration of renal function. By reducing food protein And blood pressure control. That in normal
Renal disease can be prevented me?

The cause of many chronic renal failure. Can be prevented, such as diabetes control. And high blood pressure as well. Can reduce the incidence of chronic renal failure. Many types of nephritis can be treated. And renal function was reserved. If treated early. Due to renal disease incurable. But may be prevented. Detection of kidney disease. And since the initial treatment. It is very important in preventing kidney failure. It is regrettable that Some patients with kidney disease, different treatment at all. Cause kidney failure and died so quickly.
How do I know if my kidney disease?